Outcomes of Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy and Combined Chemotherapy with Radiotherapy Without Surgery for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer


Division of Radiotherapy, Department of Radiology, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand Email : pmonti@kku.ac.th


Purpose: To evaluate the treatment outcomes of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) or combined chemotherapy together with radiotherapy (CMTRT) without surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 84 patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma (stage II or III) between January 1st, 2003 and December 31st, 2013 were enrolled, 48 treated with preoperative CCRT (Gr.I) and 36 with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy (CMTRT) without surgery (Gr.II). The chemotherapeutic agents used concurrent with radiotherapy were either 5fluorouracil short infusion plus leucovorin and/or capecitabine or 5fluorouracil infusion alone. All patients received pelvic irradiation. Results: There were 5 patients (10.4%) with a complete pathological response. The 3 yearoverall survival rates were 83.2% in Gr.I and 24.8 % in Gr.II (p<0.01). The respective 5 yearoverall survival rates were 70.3% and 0% (p<0.01). The 5 yearoverall survival rates in Gr.I for patients who received surgery within 56 days after complete CCRT as compared to more than 56 days were 69.5% and 65.1% (p0.91). Preoperative CCRT used for 12 of 30 patients in Gr.I (40%) with lower rectal cancer demonstrated that in preoperative CCRT a sphincter sparing procedure can be performed. Conclusions: The results of treatment with preoperative CCRT for locally advanced rectal cancer showed comparable rates of overall survival and sphincter sparing procedures as compared to previous studies.