Relationship Between Perceived Risk and Physician Recommendation and Repeat Mammography in the Female Population in Tehran, Iran


Department of Public Health, School of Health Sciences, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran E-mail:


Iranian women are at high risk of low compliance with repeat mammography due to a lack of awareness about breast cancer, negative previous experiences, cultural beliefs, and no regular visits to a physician. Thus research is needed to explore factors associated with repeated mammography participation. Applying the concept of perceived risk as the guiding model, this study aimed to test the fit and strength of the relationship between perceived risk and physician recommendation in explaining repeat mammography. A total of 601 women, aged 50 years and older referred to mammography centers in region 6, were recruited via a convenience sampling method. Using path analysis, family history of breast cancer and other types of cancer were modeled as antecedent perceived risk, and physician recommendation and knowledge were modeled as an antecedent of the number of mammography visits. The model explained 49% of the variance in repeat mammography. The two factors of physician recommendation and breast self-examination had significant direct effects (P < 0.05) on repeat mammography. Perceived risk, knowledge, and family history of breast cancer had significant indirect effects on repeat mammography through physician recommendation. The results of this study provide a background for further research and interventions not only on Iranian women but also on similar cultural groups and immigrants who have been neglected to date in the mammography literature.