Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking in Central Parts of Iran

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

2 Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3 Cardiac Rehabilitation Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

4 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

5 Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Dezful University of Medical Sciences, Dezful, Iran

6 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

7 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Background: This study aims to assess factors associated with cigarette smoking in central parts of Iran. Materials and methods: We used the data of the post intervention phase of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) that was conducted in 2007. Logistic regression was used for calculating crude and adjusted Odds Ratios (OR). The group with the least prevalence of smoking was considered as the Reference Group (RG) and the OR for other parts of the variable was calculated based on the RG and reported with a confidence interval of 95%. Findings: Generally, 9513 individuals participated in the study, of which 13.5% were smokers (26.2% of men and 0.8% of women). The OR for cigarette smoking in men compared with women in (RG) was 13.89 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 7.44–24.82). Among rural areas, compared with urban areas in (RG), the OR was 0.98 (95% CI 0.82–1.15); and among elementary education level compared to illiterate individuals the OR was 4.37 (95% CI 1.68–10.76). The OR in individuals in the age group 35–44, compared with the age group of 65 and older in (RG) was 2.49 (95% CI 1.81–3.45). The place most used for cigarette smoking was streets (72.1%); and the main reason for starting or continuing cigarette smoking, according to smokers’ opinions, was pleasure and fun. Conclusion: The highest number of smokers was in 35-44 years men, in rural areas, with elementary education level; so, they are the ones who need more attention through implementation of educational programs for awareness, improved attitudes and practices, and smoking cessation programs.


Volume 18, Issue 3
March 2017
Pages 647-653
  • Receive Date: 05 December 2016
  • Revise Date: 20 April 2017
  • Accept Date: 20 April 2017
  • First Publish Date: 20 April 2017