Hepatocellular Carcinoma: a Comprehensive Review of Biomarkers, Clinical Aspects, and Therapy

Document Type : Systematic Review and Meta-analysis


1 Research Unit of Genetics and Molecular Biology (UPGEM), São Jose do Rio Preto Medical School (FAMERP), Sao Jose do Rio Preto- SP, Brazil.

2 Liver Tumors Study Group (GETF), São Jose do Rio Preto Medical School (FAMERP), Sao Jose do Rio Preto- SP, Brazil.


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a cause of several deaths related to cancer worldwidely. In early stage, curative treatments such as surgical resection, liver transplant and local ablation can improve the patient ´s survival. However, the disease is detected in advanced stage; moreover some available therapies are restricted to palliative care and local treatment. Early detections of HCC and adequate therapy are crucial to increase survival as well as to improve the patient´s quality of life. Therefore, researchers have been investigating molecular biomarkers with high sensibility and reliability as Golgi 73 protein (GP73), Glypican-3 (GPC3), Osteopontin (OPN), microRNAs and others. MicroRNAs can regulate important pathways on carcinogenesis, as tumor angiogenesis and progression. So, they can be considered as possible markers of prognosis in HCC, and therapeutic target for this tumor type. In this review, we discuss the recent advances related to the cause (highlighting the main risk factors), treatment, biomarkers, clinic aspects, and outcome in hepatocellular carcinoma.