Comparison of Direct and Indirect Methods of Teaching Breast Self-Examination – Influence on Knowledge and Attitudes of Iranian Nursing and Midwifery Personnel

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Nursing, Borujen Nursing School, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

2 Department of Medical and Surgical, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

3 Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.


Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Monthly breast self-examination (BSE) has been
presented as one of the best screening methods available. The aim of this study was to compare effects of both direct and indirect methods of teaching of BSE on knowledge and attitudes of nursing and midwifery personnel. Materials and
Methods: The present study was performed on 89 nursing and midwifery personnel in Valiasr hospital of Borujen city.
Participants were randomly divided into a direct and an indirect training group. Researcher-designed BSE knowledge
and attitude and demographic information questionnaires were used for data collection. Results: Before the education
intervention, the mean levels of knowledge and attitude were 9.82±2.79 and 56.5±6.21 in the direct training group and
9.59±2.71 and 54.5±4.51 in the indirect training group; after the intervention, they reached 19.2±0.96 and 62.9±4.21, and 11.0±2.58 and 59.0±3.44, respectively. The difference in the mean levels of knowledge and attitude were significantly higher in the direct training group post intervention (P<0.05). Conclusion: It appears that educational planners and hospital personnel education officials should seek to teach aspects of crucial health behavior to female personnel using cooperative and direct training methods.


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