Reliability and Validity of the Malay Version of a Modified Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire among Bruneian Secondary Students

Document Type : Research Articles


PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku, BE1410, Bandar Seri Begawan, PAP Rashidah Sa’adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD), Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Saadatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam.


Introduction: The 12-items Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SEQ-12) has been shown to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess confidence in one’s ability to refrain from smoking. However, although such measures have been validated worldwide, most of them have not been culturally and linguistically adapted for use among Malay communities. The objective of this study was therefore to modify the SEQ-12 according to the Bruneian context for cultural adaptation for use among Bruneian adolescents, and assess the validity and reliability of the Malay translated version among secondary students. Methods: The original English version of the SEQ-12 was modified according to Bruneian context, translated and back-translated into and from the Malay language. The Malay version was then pre-tested and finally distributed to 40 purposively selected students in two secondary schools in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam. Reliability was determined using Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency, while to assess the construct validity, an exploratory principle component factor analysis with varimax rotation was applied. Test-retest reliability was assessed with the students and tested using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: In total, 31 students participated with the initial questionnaire and the test-retest reliability. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors, representing two constructs as in the original questionnaire. Cronbach’s alpha co-efficients for the first and second factors were 0.87 and 0.92, respectively. The test-retest reliability test showed an ICC of 0.98 (95%CI: 0.96, 0.99). Conclusions: The Malay version of the M-SEQ-12 is a valid and reliable scale, with potential applications in both research and clinical settings. It is a useful instrument for measuring self-efficacy regarding avoidance of smoking among Bruneian secondary students. Further analysis is necessary to assess the concurrent validity of the M-SEQ-12.


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