The Effect of Health Belief Model-Based Education through Telegram Instant Messaging Services on Pap smear performance

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Health, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

2 The Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

3 Department of Biostatistics, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.


Background: Pap smear is an effective screening method for early detection of cervical cancer. This study aimed to investigate the effect of education based on Health Belief Model (HBM) through Telegram instant messaging services on the Pap smear test. Material and methods: This research was a quasi-experimental study which was performed on 106 eligible women (48 participants in the intervention group and 47 participants in the control group). The patients in both groups completed the written consent form and questionnaires at the beginning of the study. In intervention group, the educational content based on HBM was regularly sent via Telegram during one month. After education and three months later, both groups completed questionnaires. Then, the data was analyzed with using SPSS version 22. Results: The findings showed that the two groups at first were similar in demographic characteristics. In the intervention group, the mean difference of the scores before and immediate post training on the knowledge and all of the constructs were significant (P<0.001). Also, the mean difference of the scores before and three months after training on knowledge and all of the constructs (except for perceived barriers) has increased and about the perceived barriers this difference has decreased significantly compared to the score before the training. In the control group, changes in knowledge and other constructs were not significant in during the study. Within the three months after the training, 23 participants (47.9%) in the intervention group, and 4 participants (5.8%) in the control group performed Pap smear which indicates a statistically significant difference (P<0.001). Conclusion: With regard to the individuals’ access to mobile phone, content posted by Telegram on the HBM-based education affects the women’s belief and behavior regarding Pap smear test.


Main Subjects

Volume 18, Issue 8
August 2017
Pages 2221-2226
  • Receive Date: 15 May 2017
  • Revise Date: 19 July 2017
  • Accept Date: 06 August 2017
  • First Publish Date: 06 August 2017