Risk Factors for Hydatidiform Mole: Is Husband’s Job a Major Risk Factor?

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Centre (IRHRC) , Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences,Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Nutrition Research Department, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Background: The hydatidiform mole (HM) is a precancerous placenta considered as a gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). It may convert to more invasive forms of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), endangering women’s health by more severe complications. Most GTN cases originate from HM, which is associated with uterine bleeding, preeclampsia and thyroid problems. Its etiology has not been adequately explored, but some risk factors have been reported. The aim of the present study was to assess any relationships between molar pregnancy and factors including mothers’ and husbands’ occupations. Methods: In this case control study, seventy complete molar pregnancies (cases) were compared with 200 normal pregnancies (controls) in 5 educational hospitals affiliated to medical universities in Tehran, Iran. Data were analyzed using t-test, chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test and logistic regression modeling. Results: There was no significant relationship between the risk of molar pregnancy and age, education, blood RH, parity, duration of OCP use, intra-uterine device usage, smoking, consanguinity of woman and husband, ethnicity, history of infertility, history of moles in the family, and dwelling ownership. The two groups were statistically different regarding husbands’ jobs, history of abortion, use OCP, and ABO blood group. The odds ratio with a husband’s physical job having exposure to dust and soil was 18.2 (CI: 8.26-43.03, PV˂0.001). Logistic regression analysis only showed husband’s job and husband’s physical job exposure to dust and soil as predictors. Conclusion: Husband’s jobs and especially exposure to dust and soil could be a major risk factor for molar pregnancy. More studies on the epidemiology, occupational health, microbiology and genetics are warranted to shed more light on this abnormal pregnancy.


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