Document Type : Research Articles
Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jalan Sekip Utara Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Research Center for Biotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Indonesia.
Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), Japan.
Cell cycle regulation and the NF-κB pathway in cancer cells are important in mediating resistance to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Pentagamavunon-1 (PGV-1), a curcumin analog, is known to exhibit stronger growth inhibitory effects than curcumin itself in several cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the potency of PGV-1 in combination with 5-FU in WiDr colon cancer cells. In MTT assays, PGV-1 did not only exhibit stronger growth inhibitory effects than both 5-FU and curcumin, but also enhanced the cytotoxicity of 5-FU. Flow cytometry demonstrated that single treatments with PGV-1 and 5-FU resulted in different effects on cell cycle profiles. PGV-1 induced G2/M arrest while 5-FU caused S-phase arrest at low concentration (1 μM) and G1-phase arrest at high concentration (100 μM). Interestingly, the combination of 5-FU and PGV-1 enhanced cell accumulation in S-phase. Although a single treatment with either 5-FU or PGV-1 increased cyclin D1 at the protein level, the combination treatment resulted in significant suppression. In addition, PGV-1 inhibited activation of NF-κB and suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, an NF-κB downstream protein. In conclusion, PGV-1 increased the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU on WiDr cells through inhibition of NF-κB activation.