Factors Associated with Colorectal Cancer Among Jordanians: a Case- Control Study

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.

2 Department of Internal Medicine, King Abdullah University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

3 Princess Salma Faculty of Nursing, Al al-Bayt University, Mafraq, Jordan.


Objective: In recent years, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Jordan has been on the rise. We aimed to
determine associations with lifestyle factors, demographic and clinical variables. Methods: This case-control study
included 102 patients diagnosed with CRC and 198 age and gender matched healthy subjects as controls. Cases were
purposefully sampled; however, the control group were selected by simple random sampling of a cross-section of the
population in Northern Jordan. Participating cases and controls completed an anonymous questionnaire inquiring about
their demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and clinical variables. Data about the medical history and diagnosis
of participating cases were obtained from the cases themselves and confirmed by reviewing their medical records.
Results: In the cross tabulation analysis, the Chi square test showed that diabetes and hypertension were significantly
associated with CRC (P <0.05). Additionally, regression modeling revealed that age ≥ 45 years (OR=10.93), positive
family history for CRC (OR=5.53), physical inactivity (OR=7.4), cigarette smoking (OR=3.71), and having other types
of cancer (OR=13.61) were all associated with increased risk of CRC. Conclusions: Physical inactivity and cigarette
smoking are among the top modifiable risk factors for CRC among Jordanians. Moreover, diabetes and hypertension
were found to be statistically significant risk factors in univariate, but not multivariate analysis. More effective strategies
for elevating awareness and prevention are required at both national and international levels. Improving screening
strategies is needed for early detection of CRC in Jordan.


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