Dietary Factors Associated with Pancreatic Cancer Risk in Minia, Egypt: Principal Component Analysis

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minia, Egypt.

2 Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

3 Department of Surgical Oncology, Minia Cancer Center, Minia, Egypt.


Background: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a serious and rapidly progressing malignancy. Identifying risk factors
including dietary elements is important to develop preventive strategies. This study focused on possible links between
diet and PC. Methods: We conducted a case-control study including all PC patients diagnosed at Minia Cancer Center
and controls from general population from June 2014 to December 2015. Dietary data were collected directly through
personal interviews. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify dietary groups. The data were
analyzed using crude odds ratios (ORs) and multivariable logistic regression with adjusted ORs and 95% confidence
intervals (CIs). Results: A total of 75 cases and 149 controls were included in the study. PCA identified six dietary
groups, labeled as cereals and grains, vegetables, proteins, dairy products, fruits, and sugars. Bivariate analysis showed
that consumption of vegetables, fruits, sugars, and total energy intake were associated with change in PC risk. In
multivariable-adjusted models comparing highest versus lowest levels of intake, we observed significant lower odds
of PC in association with vegetable intake (OR 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07-0.85, P=0.012) and a higher likelihood with the
total energy intake (OR 9.88; 95% CI, 2.56-38.09, P<0.0001). There was also a suggested link between high fruit
consumption and reduced odds of PC. Conclusions: The study supports the association between dietary factors and the
odds of PC development in Egypt. It was found that higher energy intake is associated with an increase in likelihood
of PC, while increased vegetable consumption is associated with a lower odds ratio.


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