Risk Factors for Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review

Document Type : Systematic Review and Meta-analysis


1 Student Research Committee, School of Management and Medical Informatics, Hazrat-e Aliasghar Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

2 Health Policy Research Center, Institute of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

3 Health Human Resources Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

4 School of Management and Medical Informatics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Objective: Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, with many influences contributing to the
disease. The aim of this study was to identify the most important risk factors. Methods: This study was conducted in
2017 with a structured overview in the Science Directe, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science (ISI) databases.
In the first step, articles were extracted based on their titles and abstracts; the quality of 43 articles was evaluated
using the STORBE tool. Inclusion criteria were studies carried out on human, English language (first step), year of
the study and the study type (second step). Results: Finally, 1,381 articles were found, of which 1,269 were excluded
in primary and secondary screening. In reviewing the references of the remaining 44 papers, 4 studies were added.
Finally, 43 articles were selected for the quality assessment process. A total of 52 risk factors for gastric cancer were
identified and classified into nine important categories: diet, lifestyle, genetic predisposition, family history, treatment
and medical conditions, infections, demographic characteristics, occupational exposures and ionizing radiation’.
Conclusion: Several environmental and genetic factors are involved in the development of gastric cancer. Regarding
the role of changes in ‘diet and lifestyle’, considering appropriate nutrition and improving the level of education and
awareness of people is vital for early diagnosis and timely treatment of this disease, especially in people with a family
history and genetic predisposition.


Main Subjects