Factors Affecting Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening Among African Women in Klang Valley, Malaysia

Document Type : Research Articles


Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.


Introduction: Cervical cancer is a health concern among women worldwide, presently ranking as the second to fourth
common cancer type among women in different parts of the world. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) 16 and 18 are the
main causative agents of cervical cancer. However, prevention is possible with early and regular cervical cancer screening.
Objective: This study aimed to identify the cervical cancer screening practices and factors affecting the screening
status of African immigrant women attending selected church services in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Methodology:
A cross-sectional study among 320 randomly selected respondents between ages 18-69 was conducted in three different
churches with high numbers of African participants. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among the
respondents. To ensure a good understanding, the questionnaire was written and self-explained in English language,
because English is the general spoken language among the study population. Three levels of analysis were conducted
using SPSS 21, involving descriptive analysis, chi square and multiple logistic regression. Results: The response rate
was 98.2%, the majority (68.1%) of the respondents being aged 31-50 years and married. The prevalence of screening
among the respondents over the past 3 years was 27.2%. Using a p-value of 0.05 as the significance level, the final
model showed that marital status (p=0.004), knowledge (p=0.035), perceived barriers (p=0.003), and having a regular
health care provider (p<0.001) were the only significant predicting factors of uptake of cervical screening among African
immigrant women in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Conclusion: The findings revealed that the uptake of cervical cancer
screening among the African women was very low. Marital status, knowledge, perceived barriers and having a regular
health care provider were the predictive factors. Specific awareness programs to increase uptake should be designed and
implemented by the relevant authorities.


Main Subjects