Chemopreventive Effects of Edible Canna (Canna edulis Kerr.) Against Colorectal Carcinogenesis: Effects on Expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Rat Inflammatory Model

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

2 Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta, Indonesia.

3 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.


Objective: Dietary high fibre and calcium intake has been suggested to reduce colorectal cancer risk. However, there
is limited information available regarding the potential of edible canna (Ganyong), with high dietary fibre and calcium
content, to act as a preventive agent for colorectal cancer. This experimental study was conducted to investigate the
preventive effect of Ganyong in reducing colorectal carcinogenesis with attention to effects on adenomatous polyposis
coli (APC) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided
into 5 equal groups; a normal control group without azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulphate (AOM/DSS) induction
and Ganyong, a ‘cancer’ control group with AOM/DSS induction only, and three treatment groups with AOM/DSS
induction and different percentages (5%, 10% and 20%) of Ganyong. Paraffin-embedded sections of rat colon tissue
were analysed by haematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining against antibodies against APC and iNOS.
Variation in rates of APC and iNOS expression were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Dunn’s
test (SPSS statistic version 24). Pthe expression of APC (p=0.013) and iNOS (p=0.013) compared to the normal control group. APC expression in the
treated groups was lower than in the ‘cancer’ control group (p=0.049), especially in the 10% Ganyong group (p=0.02).
In contrast, there was no significant variation among the treated groups regarding iNOS expression. Histopathological
features of the colon supported the data for APC and iNOS expression. Conclusion: This study indicated potential
chemopreventive effects of Ganyong reducing expression of factors contributing to colorectal carcinogenesis.


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