Psychometric Properties of the Farsi Version of “Spiritual Needs Questionnaire” for Cancer Patients in Iran: A Methodological Study

Document Type : Research Articles


1 School of Nursing, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Tonekabon, Iran.

2 Pediatric Nursing Department, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Nursing, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan, Iran.

4 Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Background and objectives: Spiritual needs are very important requirements to cancer patients. A valid and
reliable instrument is needed for evaluation. This study was conducted to psychometrically evaluate a Spiritual Needs
Questionnaire (SpNQ) for cancer patients in Iran. Methods: In this study, the methodology and psychometric properties
of the Farsi version of the SpNQ (Büssing et al., (2010)) were evaluated, based on the model proposed by Wilde et al.,
(2005). The study population included cancer patients referred to the largest referral center in Iran. Some 400 subjects
were selected. Then, the content, face and construct validity, as well as the internal consistency and reliability of the
Farsi version were assessed. Findings: In the confirmatory factor analysis, the original four-factor version with 19
phrases was not confirmed. Subsequently, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was carried out in which phrases were
included in three dimensions (peace and active giving, religion, and existence) that explained 48.1% of the variance.
Later, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted, which showed a good fit of the model (CFI=0.94, GFI=0.94,
RMSEA=0.071, and AGFI=0.96). Cronbach’s alpha was α=0.91 for the whole SpNQ. Cronbach’s alpha values ranged
from 0.76 to 0.86 for the three factors. The intra-class correlation coefficient was ICC=0.82 between two tests performed
with a two-week interval. Conclusion: The modified Farsi version of the SpNQ shows good psychometric properties
for patients and can be used to investigate the spiritual needs of Iranian cancer patients.


Main Subjects

Volume 19, Issue 4
April 2018
Pages 989-995
  • Receive Date: 23 October 2017
  • Revise Date: 31 January 2018
  • Accept Date: 11 March 2018
  • First Publish Date: 01 April 2018