Comparison of Salivary Cotinine Concentrations in Male Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Oral and Dental Disease Research Center, Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

2 Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

3 Dentist, Dental School, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.


Objective: Smoking cigarettes and smokeless tobacco are one of the causes of oral cancer. This study compared
the salivary level of cotinine in male smokeless tobacco users and smokers. Methods: In this cross-sectional
(descriptive-analytical) study, stimulated saliva samples from 30 male smokers and 30 male smokeless tobacco consumers
were collected and their cotinine contents were measured using the competitive ELISA method according the standard
curve. The data was analyzed with independent t-test and linear regression using SPSS-19, and Psignificant. Result: Among the 60 subjects with the mean age of 21.27±2.6 years, the average level of cotinine in
smokers (12.32±7.5 ng/ml) had no significant difference with that of smokeless tobacco consumers (11.23±4.4 ng/ml)
(p=0.49). Conclusion: Salivary levels of cotinine were not significantly different in smokeless tobacco users and
cigarette smokers. In addition, increases in the number of cigarettes smoked and in pack of smokeless tobacco used,
were associated with increased salivary levels of cotinine. The increase was higher in smokeless tobacco consumers.


Main Subjects