Oral Lichen Planus: an Overview of Potential Risk Factors, Biomarkers and Treatments

Document Type : Systematic Review and Meta-analysis


Dental Research Center and Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.


Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immune-related disorder with unknown exact etiology but established prevalence
in females. There are six clinical forms of OLP, ranging from asymptomatic white keratotic lesions to painful erosions
and ulcerations. The aim of the present report is to overview pathologic and therapeutic aspects. Peroxidation products,
antioxidants, cortisol, and immunoglobulins are potential biomarkers to predict OLP occurrence. The risk of OLP
development in patients with hepatitis B and C infection is 2-fold greater than in healthy individuals, while there is no
significant relation with diabetes mellitus. Corticosteroids are common drugs to treat OLP and their combination with
other agents can be most effective. Folic acid and variants of vitamin B are also potential treatments since they target
hematological abnormalities.