Clinical and Socio- Demographic Risk Factors for Acquisition of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Nigeria

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria.

2 Department of Microbiology, University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria.

3 Max von Pettenkofer-Institute, Munich, Germany.

4 Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba, Nigeria.

5 Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Nigeria.

6 University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin, Nigeria.

7 Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

8 Monitoring and Evaluation, Unit, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria.


Background: The aim of the study was to assess clinical and socio-demographic characteristics as well as prior
drug usage as risk factors for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in Nigeria. Methods: A total of 347 respondents
were surveyed by assessing their clinical and socio-demographic characteristics in comparison with the non-invasive
gold standard for H. pylori diagnosis, the urea breath test (UBT). Chi-square test and odds ratio analyses were
conducted in order to assess if variables such as socio-demographic factors, drug intake, and history of ulcer/gastritis/
gastric cancer within the family significantly predicted test results. Results: A total of 130 (37.5%) respondents were
positive for H. pylori by the UBT. Living with more than three people in an apartment and a history of ulcer/gastritis
within the family were significantly associated with H. pylori (p ≤0.05), as well as current antibiotic intake (p ≤0.05).
Nationality, stay outside Nigeria, level of education, main occupation, smoking and drinking habits, sources of drinking
water, number of children and history of gastric cancer had no significant association with H. pylori infection (p ≥ 0.05).
Conclusion: The results of the questionnaire revealed that most socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents
had no significant association with H. pylori. Overcrowding, having siblings/parents with history of ulcer/gastritis as
well as prior antibiotic usage had a significant association.


Main Subjects