Incidence and Mortality of Cancers Related to Secondhand Smoking in Southeast Asia Countries

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

2 Undergraduate Student, Faculty of Pharmacy, University Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

3 Graduate Program in Pharmacy Management, Faculty of Pharmacy, University Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.


Background: Secondhand smoke has been a big problem for human being worldwide as it is well-established
risk factors for cancers. ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) bear high burden of cancers since the high
prevalence of secondhand smoke. The objective of this study is to estimate the burden of cancer attributable to secondhand
smoking in ASEAN. Methods: This research was using descriptive epidemiological incidence and prevalence-based
research design, with cancers incidence and mortality data gained from GLOBOCAN 2012. Secondhand smoke
attributable fractions (SAFs) of six cancers (lung, bladder, colorectal, stomach, pancreas and larynx) were estimated
and burden of cancers caused by secondhand smoking in ASEAN were calculated in term of incidence and mortality.
Results: Secondhand smoking estimated for 453,562 cancer cases and 323,284 of total cancer mortality in 2012. The
number of incidence and death of lung cancer attributable to secondhand smoking show the highest number compared
with other type of cancers. Furthermore, we found that the number of cancer cases and cancer deaths attributable to
secondhand smoking varied by each countries due to differences in size of population, various background risk of the
cancer, and prevalence of secondhand smoking in each country. Conclusion: Secondhand smoking has been a risk factor
for about two-fifth of cancer incidence and mortality in ASEAN. Therefore, ASEAN member countries are strongly
encouraged to put in place stronger tobacco control policies and to strengthen the existing tobacco control measure in
order to decrease the number of secondhand smokers and more effectively control cancers.


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