Urine and Serum Exosomes as Novel Biomarkers in Detection of Bladder Cancer

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University,Cairo, Egypt.

2 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmaceutical Industries, Future University, Cairo, Egypt.

3 National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.


Background: The gold standard for initial clinical diagnosis of bladder cancer involves cystoscopic examination of bladder and histological evaluation of tissues. There is a critical need to identify non-invasive and sensitive biomarkers. Early detection is essential challenge in diagnosis and surveillance of bladder carcinoma. Exosomes are nano- sized vesicles present in many biological fluids and have significant role in cancer. Thus, quantification of exosomes in different stages of bladder cancer may be of critical concern for clinical diagnosis and prognosis. Methods: Tumor derived exosomes levels in urine and serum samples of 70 bladder cancer Egyptian patients from stages T0-T3 and 12 healthy control people were measured using ELISA technique. Results: When compared to health subjects, exosomes levels in bladder cancer patients were increased in urine and serum samples at different stages of the disease. A gradual increase in tumor derived exosomes in serum (1.21, 3.31, 4.71, 6.47µg/ml) and urine (1.59, 2.84, 4.75, 6.67µg/ml) was observed comparative to invasiveness of tumor (T0-T3). Serum was more specific (100%) sample for detection of exosomes in bladder cancer. Conclusion:  our findings suggest that tumor derived exosomes may offer a convenient tool for early diagnosis and monitoring of bladder cancer. 


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