Risk of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Results of a Case-Control Study

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Paramedicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

2 Students Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

3 Besat Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

4 Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.


Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy in children. Different
environmental factors might be effective in the occurrence of this malignancy during childhood. The aim of this study
was to find environmental risk factors in childhood ALL in Hamadan, Iran. Methods: This case-control study was
done in 2015-2018 on 125 children younger than 15 years of age suffering from ALL. Patients were matched with
130 controls with respect to age, gender, and residence location. The identification of risk factors for ALL was sought
based on the comparison of studied variables between case and control individuals. Results: A statistically significant
increased risk for ALL was found with regard to type of delivery (OR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.20 - 0.92, p˂0.02), childcare
(OR: 4.58, 95% CI: 0.95 - 22.20, p˂0.04), birth weight (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.53 - 2.21, p˂0.006), father’s education
level (OR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.10 - 6.45, p˂0.02), and father’s job (OR: 0.2 95% CI: 0.08 - 0.51, p˂0.001). Also observed
were increased odds for ALL regarding male gender, mother’s high education level, mother’s freelance job, and medium
or high family income. No association with ALL incidence was observed for age, gender, breastfeeding, mother’s age
at pregnancy, malignancy in first- or second-degree relatives, or mother’s use of hair dye during pregnancy (p> 0.05).
Conclusion: This study showed that father’s education level, father’s job, delivery type, birth weight, and childcare
can play a role in the incidence of childhood ALL.


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