Evaluation of Haptoglobin Genotype and Some Risk Factors of Cancer in Patients with Early Stage Esophageal Cancer

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

2 Student Research Committee, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran.


Introduction: Esophageal cancer is one of the most lethal gastrointestinal cancers that has a complex and diverse
etiology, with several genetic and nutritional factors involved in its etiology. The purpose of this study was to investigate
the type of haptoglobin genotype and its relationship with some nutritional and biochemical risk factors affecting
the prevalence of esophageal cancer in patients with early stage esophageal cancer. Materials and methods: In this
study, 44 patients (20 males and 24 females) with early stage esophageal cancer and 44 healthy subjects, classified as
control group, (19 males and 25 females) were selected. Haptoglobin (HP) genotype was determined employing PCR
technique. Nutritional data were analyzed using standard food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) method. Serum levels
of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrate and nitrite were measured employing the colorimetric method. Serum levels of
p53 protein were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Results: The results
of our study showed for the first time that HP1-1 genotype was the most prevalent genotype in esophageal cancer
patients in Golestan province, Iran. HP2-2 genotype was the most frequent in the control group. Serum levels of MDA
were significantly higher in the patients’ group compared to the control group (P˂0.001). Weight and body mass index
(BMI) were significantly lower in the patients’ group than the control group (P<0.01). Food frequency analysis revealed
that the consumption of fruits and vegetables in the patients’ group was lower than that of the control group (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The results of our study showed for the first time that HP1-1 genotype is the dominant genotype in
patients with esophageal cancer in Golestan province. As well, modification of nutritional pattern and consumption of
high level of antioxidant compounds can be effective in reducing the prevalence of esophageal cancer in this region.


Main Subjects