Sorafenib- Taurine Combination Model for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells: Immunological Aspects

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Department of Cancer Biology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

3 Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

4 Department of Clinical Pathology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.


Sorafenib (Sor) is a multi-kinase inhibitor. It is recommended for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma
(HCC). However, Sor has severe and marked side effects. On the other hand, taurine (Tau) has been shown to enhance
the therapeutic effects of cancer chemotherapy and also to enhance the function of leukocytes.
Here, we aimed to investigate the enhancing efficacy of Sor as well as minimizing its marked side effects by
using Tau in combination in an immunological aspect. We evaluated the influence of Sor and Tau combination on the
expression pattern of FOXP3 gene in HepG2 cells compared to peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMCs) as
control normal cells. Also, the levels of TGF-β and IL-10 released in culture media of both cells were determined. Our
results revealed that, Tau reduced cytotoxicity of Sor on PBMC indicated by lactic dehyrogenase (LDH) release assay.
In addition, Sor-Tau combination led to FOXP3 down-regulation in hepatic cancer cells (HepG2). The results showed
also that, TGF-β levels decreased significantly in their culture media. In contrary, the cytokine increased in PBMCs
culture media. Moreover, IL-10 was significantly elevated in the culture media of both cells. This study could open new
avenues for the improvement of therapeutic efficacy of Sorafenib treated HCC patients by using Tau in combination.


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