Cofactors and Their Association with Cancer of the Uterine Cervix in Women Infected with High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in South India

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Biochemistry, Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, India.

2 Department of Genetics, Narayana Medical College & Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India.


Background: Human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are recognized as the major etiological agents of most pre invasive and invasive cancer of the uterine cervix. Many cofactors in association with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) trigger infection which leads to cervical carcinogenesis. The aim was to study various cofactors and their association with cervical cancer in women infected with HR-HPV. Methods: The present study screened a total of 156 subjects for the presence of HPV infection. Association of various cofactors with cervical cancer was estimated using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The HR-HPV infection showed a very significant risk factor for cervical cancer. Among the cofactors, the education level, early sexual exposure and age at pregnancy had no significant association while low socioeconomic status (SES) and high parity showed significant association as risk factors for cervical cancer. Tobacco chewing with betel quid was not significantly associated with cervical cancer. Conclusions: The present study indicates that low SES is a major risk factor associated with cervical cancer. Bringing awareness about HPV infection and intensifying routine screening programs for cervical cancer will help reduce the risk of cervical cancer among women with low SES in this region.


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