Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection in High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Based on Cervical Cytology Specimen

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.


Objective: High-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) was associated with the development of cervical cancer. Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infection is the most common bacterial, sexually-transmitted infection. This study aimed to investigate the association of C. trachomatis in positive HR HPV and the cytological results from liquid-based cytology (LBC). Methods: 150 residual LBC specimens were collected; all of which had undergone cytology and HPV testing by Cobas. The samples were established as C. trachomatis using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) with Cryptic F/Cryptic R primers. Results: Of 150 positive HPV findings, the most common (72.7%, 109/150) were the 12 other HR HPVs (viz., 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68). The cervical cytology of those positive HR HPVs were mostly negative (70.0%, 105/150).  The C. trachomatis infections in positive HR HPV were 16% (24/150) HPV. The analysis of the abnormal cytology revealed that 41.6% had C. trachomatis co-infection (C. trachomatis and HPV infection) viz., LSIL (20.8%), HSIL (12.5%), and ASC-US (8.3%). A comparison with positive HPV without C. trachomatis co-infection revealed that the highest prevalence was for LSIL, ASC-US, and HSIL (11.1%, 10.3%, and 6.4%, respectively). There was no difference between the abnormalities and negative cervical cytology with negative and positive C. trachomatis co-infection in HR HPV positive (p = 0.174). Conclusion: C. trachomatis infection was not significantly associated HR-HPV and abnormal cytology. This study confirms the increasing rate of C. trachomatis infection in asymptomatic women so routine screening for these infections has been suggested to (a) prevent complications such as the chronic pelvic pain associated with prolong infection and (b) reduce sexual transmission of the infection.