Utility of PHH3 in Evaluation of Mitotic Index in Breast Carcinoma and Impact on Tumor Grade

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Pathology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Anatomical and Clinical Pathologist, Farvardin Laboratory, Tehran, Iran.

3 Private Center, Tehran, Iran.


Background:Mitotic activity index is considered as the most important grading component to predict prognosis in invasive breast carcinoma. But it is believed that it is also the cause of discordance in grade estimation based on Bloom-Richardson system. Thus, reproducible methods such as immunohistochemistry (IHC) based analysis methods appears to be of great value in facilitating mitotic count. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we examined the utility of Phosphohistone H3 by IHC in various grades of breast carcinoma and compared it with traditional mitotic count by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and probable changes in tumor grading. Results: Total 90 cases of invasive breast carcinoma were evaluated. Mean mitotic count were 8.6 and 6.4/10HPF in IHC and HandE groups, respectively. Although , mean average count was higher by IHC method , good correlation was observed(R=0.914). Using PHH3 IHC, two out of 33 cases of grade I tumors were upgraded in to grade II and three cases of grade II were upgraded in to grade III. None of the tumors were down graded. Conclusion: Similar to some other previous studies, we found PHH3 a robust sensitive and practical marker for mitotic count in breast carcinoma. Especially it is helpful to identify the most proliferating area. However, further studies are required to confirm the superiority of this biomarker for including in grading system.


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