Cytotoxicity, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis Induction Activity of Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate in Cholangiocarcinoma Cell

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Drug Discovery and Development Center, Office of Advanced Science and Technology, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.

2 Center of Excellence in Pharmacology of Malaria and Cholangiocarcinoma, Chulabhorn International College of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani,Thailand.

3 Graduate Program in Bioclinical Sciences, Chulabhorn International College of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.


Objective: To investigate cytotoxic activity of ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) including its effect on p-glycoprotein (multidrug resistance-1: mdr-1 gene) in human cholangiocarcinoma cell. Methods: Cytotoxic activity of EPMC against human cholangiocarcinoma (CL-6), fibroblast (OUMS-36T-1F), and colon cancer (Caco-2) cell lines were assessed using MTT assay. Selectivity index (SI) was determined as the ratio of IC50 (concentration that inhibits cell growth by 50%) of EPMC in OUMS-36T-1F and that in CL-6 cell. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CL-6 cells were investigated by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Effect of EPMC on mdr-1 gene expression in CL-6 and Caco-2 was determined by real-time PCR. Results: The median (95% CI) IC50 values of EPMC in CL-6, OUMS-36T-1F, and Caco-2 were 245.5 (243.1-266.7), 899.60 (855.8-966.3) and 347.0 (340.3-356.9) µg/ml, respectively. The SI value of the compound for the CL-6 cell was 3.70. EPMC at IC50 inhibited CL-6 cell division and induced apoptosis compared to untreated control. EPMC exposure did not induce mdr-1 gene expression in both CL-6 and Caco-2 cells. Conclusion: The results suggest the potential role of EPMC in cholangiocarcinoma with a low possibility of drug resistance induction.


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