Expression of Salivary S100A7 Levels in Stage I Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Clinical and Laboratory Study

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Oral Pathology, Baqai Dental College, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan.

2 Department of Pathology, Islamabad Medical & Dental College, Islamabad, Pakistan.

3 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of dentistry King Saud University. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

4 Department of Clinical Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University,Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

5 Department of Prosthetic Dental Science, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

6 Research Chair for Biological Research in Dental Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic debilitating condition characterized by juxta-epithelial fibrosis. The main etiological agent associated with the high-risk precancerous condition is areca nut use. S100A7 is a member of the largest calcium-binding proteins exclusively found in vertebrates and are associated with the regulation of numerous intracellular and extracellular functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of protein S100A7 in salivary samples of individuals with stage I OSF and healthy controls. Methods: This study included 63 participants, 30 of whom had OSF stage I and 33 healthy controls. Nonprobability quota sampling technique was utilized for recruitment of the study participants. A structured baseline questionnaire was used to collect demographic data. Saliva samples were collected by passive droll technique in a sterile container. Salivary levels of S100A7 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For the normality of the data Shapiro Wilk test was performed. Student t-test was commuted to evaluate the expression of S100A7 protein expression between both the study groups. Results: The mean salivary S100A7 value for stage I OSF group was 0.334 ng/ml, compared to 0.172 ng/ml for healthy controls. Student t-test reported a statistically significant difference, indicating higher levels of S100A7 in stage I OSF group than in healthy controls (p < 0.001). In the individual group analysis, a significant negative correlation was found between salivary S100A7 and duration of areca nut use (r = –0.45, p = 0.009) and gutka chewing (r = –0.20, p = 0.03), while a significant positive correlation was found between salivary S100A7 and mouth opening (r = 0.03, p = 0.04). Conclusions: Higher levels of S100A7 protein level was seen in stage I OSF group in comparison to the healthy individuals. Results of our study suggest that S100A7 could be used as a surrogate assessment to identify patients at risk of OSF development.


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