Predictors of the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Obtained from Real-World Data Analysis in Cancer Patients Treated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Pharmacy, National Hospital Organization Hokkaido Cancer Center, Japan.

2 Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University of Science, Japan.


Medications that target programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) have proven effective. However, blockade of PD-1/Programmed death-ligand 1(PD-L1) causes immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Characteristics of this irAE include many symptom, low in frequency, and difficulty in prevention. The key to a successful ICI-related treatment lies in the management of irAEs resulting from immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment. Although it is difficult to predict irAE, we tried to extract features of irAE expression from analysis of real-world database. This study used data extracted from the Japan Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database to assess risk factors associated with serious side effects of irAE, type 1 diabetes (T1DM). The analysis targets were nivolumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, and pembrolizumab, and the study period was from July 2014 to June 2019. Analysis of Japanese population data confirmed that being women and having melanoma were risk factors for developing ICI-related T1DM. Analysis using this database in combination with information on ICI-related T1DM provides information and guidelines that will help in the safer treatment of ICI in the future.


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