Xylocarpus Moluccensis Induces Cytotoxicity in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cell Line via Activation of the Extrinsic Pathway

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Institute of Marine Biotechnology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Terengganu, Malaysia.

2 Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.

3 School of Fundamental Science, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia.


Objective: Liver cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death, with reduced survival rates. The development of new chemotherapeutic agents is essential to find effective cytotoxic drugs that give minimum side effects to the surrounding healthy tissues. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects and mechanism of cell death induced by the crude and diethyl ether extract of Xylocarpus mouccensis on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Methods: The cytotoxicity activity was measured using the MTS assay. The mode of cell death determined by the apoptosis study, DNA fragmentation analysis done by using the TUNEL system. The pathway study or mechanism of apoptosis observed by study caspases 8, 9, 3/7 Glo-caspases method. Results: In this study, the methanol extracts prepared from leaf Xylocarpus mouccensis leaf produced cytotoxicity effect with IC50 (72hr) < 30µg/ml. The IC50 value at 72 hours exerted by diethyl ether extract of Xylocarpus moluccensis leaf was 0.22 µg/ml, which was more cytotoxic than to that of crude methanol extract. The results obtained by the colorimetric TUNEL system suggest that methanol crude extract of Xylocarpus moluccensis (leaf), diethyl ether extract of Xylocarpus moluccensis (leaf) and methanol extract of Xylocarpus granatum (bark) induced DNA fragmentation in the HepG2 cell line. Besides, the caspase-Glo assay demonstrated that diethyl ether leaf extract of Xylocarpus moluccensis triggered apoptotic cell death via activation of caspases -8, and -3/7 However, no visible activation was noticed for caspase -9. Furthermore, TLC indicates the presence of potential metabolites in an extract of Xylocarpus moluccensis. Conclusion: Thus, the present study suggests the remarkable potential of active metabolites in the extract of Xylocarpus moluccensis as a future therapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer.


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