Prevalence and Type Distribution of Human Papillomavirus Recovered from the Uterine Cervix of Nigerian Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Document Type : Systematic Review and Meta-analysis


1 Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011 Kano State, Nigeria.

3 Students’ Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4 Department of Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

5 Food Microbiology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

6 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, UAE.

7 Zoonosis Science Center, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala Se-75 123, Sweden.


Background: Infection with an oncogenic type of human papillomavirus is a prerequisite for the development of precancerous cervical lesions and its subsequent progression to cervical cancer. With an alarming increase in the detection of other suspicious papillomavirus genotypes in both healthy and women with cervical lesions, there is a need for comprehensive data on cervical papillomavirus infection to address cervical cancer and other associated disease burden, especially in Sub-Sarahan Africa, where the bulk of the problem exists. The present study was conducted to develop comprehensive data on the prevalence and circulating genotypes of human papillomavirus in various risk categories in Nigeria. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of peer-reviewed publications on cervical papillomavirus infection were performed. Relevant data were extracted from eligible studies published in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar, from inception to July 31, 2019. The random-effect model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence. We identified 327 potential studies and pooled data from 18, involving 5697 women aged 15-86 years. Results: The overall pooled prevalence of cervical papillomavirus infection was 42% (95%CI: 30-54%) in the general population and 37% (95%CI: 25-50%) among women living with HIV/AIDs, with the predominance of genotypes 16, 18, 31, 35, 52, 58 and 45. The highest prevalence was observed in teenagers and young adults and the second peak in women 50 years and above. Conclusion: The prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus infection is cumulatively high in Nigeria and HIV is a strong co-factor. We, therefore, strongly recommend the co-screening of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer and integration of the intervention strategy into the existing HIV-care guideline in Nigeria.


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