Precancerous Lesions and Liver Atrophy as Risk Factors for Hepatolithiasis-Related Death after Liver Resection for Hepatolithiasis

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abenoku, Osaka 545-8585, Japan.

2 Department of Surgery, Minamitama Hospital, 3-10-1 Sandamachi, Hachioji, Tokyo 193-0832, Japan.

3 Department of Pathology, Ishikiriseiki Hospital, 18-28 Yayoicho, Higashiosaka, Osaka, 579-8026, Japan.

4 Department of Hepatology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abenoku, Osaka, Japan.


Background: Cholangiocarcinoma and secondary biliary cirrhosis can develop after liver resection for hepatolithiasis and are causes of hepatolithiasis-related death. We determined potential risk factors for hepatolithiasis-related death and subsequent cholangiocarcinoma, including precancerous lesions such as biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct, in patients undergoing liver resection for hepatolithiasis. Methods: The study cohort included 62 patients who underwent liver resection for hepatolithiasis without concomitant cholangiocarcinoma and had surgical specimens available for pathological examination. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine risk factors associated with subsequent cholangiocarcinoma after hepatolithiasis and hepatolithiasis-related death. In 28 patients with BilIN lesions, the specimens were immunohistochemically stained for γ-H2AX and S100P. Results: In the study cohort, the causes of death were subsequent cholangiocarcinoma, biliary cirrhosis, and other diseases in 5, 3, and 7 patients, respectively. Liver atrophy, precancerous lesions, postoperative repeated cholangitis, and jaundice for ≥1 week during the follow-up period were risk factors for hepatolithiasis-related death. Multivariate analysis showed that liver atrophy and precancerous lesions were independent risk factors for hepatolithiasis-related death. Liver atrophy or precancerous lesions were also risk factors for subsequent cholangiocarcinoma by univariate analysis. The positive expression of γ-H2AX and S100P was observed in 18 and 14 of the 28 BilIN lesions, respectively. Conclusions: Liver atrophy and precancerous lesions with malignant transformation were risk factors not only for subsequent cholangiocarcinoma but also hepatolithiasis-related death after liver resection for hepatolithiasis, indicating that long-term follow-up is necessary even after liver resection in patients harboring these risk factors.


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