Prevalence of Smoke-Free Zone Compliance among Schools in Indonesia: A Nationwide Representative Survey

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia.

2 Center for Education and Community Services, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia (P3M FKM UI), Depok, Indonesia.

3 PhD Student in Business and Management, Management and Science University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

4 Department of Public Health Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. HAMKA (UHAMKA), Jakarta, Indonesia.

5 Directorate of Non-Communicable Disease Control and Prevention (P2PTM), Indonesian Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia.


Background: With the increasing prevalence of teenage or school-age smokers, schools have become the main focus of the Indonesian government in tobacco control, including through the smoke-free zone (SFZ) policy. This study aims to obtain information related to the implementation of SFZ policies in schools. Methods: A nationally representative survey was employed in 900 elementary, junior high, and senior high schools that were located in 60 regions or 24 provinces of Indonesia. Each school’s compliance with SFZ parameters was measured using a closed-ended questionnaire. The dataset was analyzed using frequency distribution, while the chi-square was performed to analyze the measurement effect of each parameter for SFZ compliance. Results: Java Island is the region with the largest proportion of school units (10%) studied in this study, and the largest group of the schools are high schools (36.1%). In terms of SFZ compliance, 413 (45.9%) of schools had perfect compliance scores of 8, followed by 183 schools (20.3%) with a score of 7 and 107 (11.9%) with a score of 6. It was found that parameter 5, namely cigarette butts found in the school environment, had the largest proportion when a school did not apply SFZ. Cigarette butts were found in 261 (29.0%) schools. Cigarette butts found in schools contributed 7.8 times to not applying SFZ compared to schools where no cigarette cutters were found. Conclusion: Although the SFZ compliance rate in Indonesian schools is 66.2% at least on 7 of 8 existed parameters, this means most of schools still aren’t fully complying with the regulations for SFZs. This recent evidence will help decisionmakers to enforce tobacco control, particularly among youth, which form the pillar of national development.


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