Prevalence and Potential Risk Factors of Helicobacter pylori Infection among Asymptomatic Individuals in Kazakhstan

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Institute of Clinical and Preventive Medicine, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.

2 Faculty of Medicine, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.

3 Riga East University Hospital, Riga, Latvia.

4 Digestive Disease Centre GASTRO, Riga, Latvia.

5 Regional Diagnostic Centre, Almaty, Kazakhstan.

6 Semey Regional Oncology Centre, Semey, Kazakhstan.

7 Astana Medical University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.

8 Central Asian Cancer Institute, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.

9 Eurasian Institute For Cancer Research, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.

10 Prevention and Implementation Group, Section of Early Detection and Prevention, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

11 Agencia Costarricense de Investigaciones Biomédicas, San José, Costa Rica.


Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is associated with several risk factors such as demographic, socioeconomic status and personal habits, which vary in different populations. This is the most up-to-date data on H. pylori prevalence and potential risk factors for H. pylori infection among asymptomatic middle-aged individuals in Kazakhstan. Methods: Apparently healthy individuals aged 40 to 64, who took part in the health control in the outpatient clinic, were invited to participate in the study; answered a questionnaire, donated a blood sample. The antibodies to H. pylori were analysed by latex agglutination method. The baseline characteristics of study subjects with or without H. pylori infection were compared using the Chi-square test. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between H. pylori infection and potential risk factors were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results: Altogether 166 subjects (59% male; the median age - 51 years old) were included; 104 (62.7%) were H. pylori positive. There were no statistically significant differences between H. pylori positive and H. pylori negative groups in respect to the gender, anthropometric measurements, socioeconomic factors and personal habits. The multiple variable analysis showed that age (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.03 – 3.86; P=0.04) and increased salt intake (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.12 – 4.35; P=0.02) were associated with H. pylori infection. Conclusions: More than half of the study subjects were infected with H. pylori in Kazakhst