Document Type : Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Manipal Institute of Virology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India.
Department of Biostatistics, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.
Department of Community Medicine, Centre for Vaccine Studies-In Charge, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Manipal, Karnataka, India.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dr T M A Pai Hospital, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India.
Objective: The term ‘‘Human Papillomavirus’’ or ‘‘HPV’’ has become synonymous with uterine cervical cancer leading to feminisation of all the preventive measures, especially immunisation. Taking into consideration the rising number of HPV associated cancers among men in many developed countries and the risk of transmission to women, male HPV infection is a serious concern. A systematic review and meta-analysis of literature was performed to determine the global prevalence of HPV among men with oropharyngeal and anogenital cancers. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of literature was performed searching electronic databases for published articles in English between January 1984- April 2020 based on standard systematic review guidelines. The meta-analysis component was modified appropriately for the synthesis of prevalence study results. National Institutes of Health checklist for observational, cohort and cross-sectional studies was used to assess the quality of the studies selected after the abstract and content review. The meta-analysis was performed in STATA version 13.0 (College Station, Texas 77,845 USA) and the forest plots were constructed using metan package in STATA. Results: Through the electronic search of databases, 3486 original articles were screened for eligibility. Fifty-eight articles were systematically reviewed and 42 articles were qualified for meta-analysis including 4,250 men with oropharyngeal, penile and prostate cancers. The pooled prevalence of HPV DNA in oropharyngeal cancers was 45% (95%CI 24.0%-66.0%). Meanwhile the pooled prevalence rates of 48% (CI 40.0%- 57.0%) and 19% (CI 10.0%-29.0%) were observed in penile and prostate cancers respectively. Even though, articles regarding HPV prevalence in anal cancers were systematically reviewed, none of the studies were qualified for meta-analysis. Conclusion: Higher pooled prevalence of HPV DNA was observed among men with oropharyngeal and penile cancers. Multicentric molecular studies investigating the prevalence of HPV in prostate cancers have to be planned in future.