Evaluation of Role of Visual Inspection Using Acetic Acid (VIA) and Exfoliative Cytology in Screening and Early Detection of Oral Premalignant Lesions and Oral Cancer

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Pathology, M.L.N. Medical College, Allahabad, India.

2 Departement of E.N.T., M.L.N. Medical College, Allahabad, India.

3 Department of Community Medicine, M.L.N. Medical College, Allahabad, India.


Objective: Oral cancer accounts for 50–70% of total cancer mortality. VIA screening has drastically changed the morbidity and mortality related to cervical cancer. In present study, we assessed the role of 5% Acetic Acid as a vital stain in oral mucosa of chronic tobacco chewers, to know if it can help in early diagnosis and improved prognosis of oral malignancies and to assess the sensitivity and specificity of VIA and exfoliative cytology for screening of Oral premalignant and malignant lesions in high risk population with limited health care infrastructure. Methods: This was an outpatient department based prospective study done in a tertiary hospital over a period of two years. 150 cases with a history of chronic tobacco use were evaluated. Visual inspection (VI) followed by VIA using 5% Acetic acid was done. Oral scrapes were taken for cytological examination followed by biopsy for histopathological evaluation, wherever possible. Results: Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of VIA and Exfoliative cytology was 71%, 65%, 83%, 48%, 69% and 98%, 65%, 89%, 92%, 88% respectively keeping histology as gold standard. Conclusion: Acetic acid along with exfoliative cytology can be used as simple, cost effective and convenient methods for mass screening of OPMDs and OSCC in high risk population where biopsy is not possible.


Main Subjects

Volume 22, Issue 7
July 2021
Pages 2273-2278
  • Receive Date: 15 April 2021
  • Revise Date: 08 June 2021
  • Accept Date: 14 July 2021
  • First Publish Date: 14 July 2021