Document Type : Research Articles
Center of Excellence in Digestive Diseases and Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University Hospital, Pathumthani, Thailand.
Department of Medicine, Chulabhorn International College of Medicine (CICM) at Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.
Division of Gastroentero-Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.
Helicobacter pylori infection is a class I carcinogen that can lead to gastric cancer. Early diagnosis and eradication of H. pylori infection are important to eliminate the risk of gastric cancer. Several invasive diagnostic techniques require biopsy samples, resulting in avoidable injury and medical expense. Furthermore, due to the localized distribution of H. pylori, random biopsies are not always reliable in diagnosing H. pylori infection. This article aimed to review endoscopic findings and new endoscopic options for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Using conventional white light imaging (WLI) and image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE), the endoscopic features associated with histological changes have increasingly become apparent. Real-time endoscopy is essential to make a diagnosis of H. pylori infection and allow targeted biopsy. Image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE), such as narrow-band imaging (NBI), linked color imaging (LCI), and blue laser imaging (BLI), enhances visualization of the surface vascular pattern and provides accurate diagnostic performance in H. pylori infection, as well as gastric neoplastic lesions, compared to conventional white light endoscopy. In conclusion, the new endoscopic technologies could be used in current practice with conventional white light endoscopy for accurate and real-time diagnosis of H. pylori infection and pre-cancerous lesions.