Periodontitis as a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer – What We Know Till Date?

Document Type : Systematic Review and Meta-analysis


1 Lecturer, Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Jouf University, Sakaka, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

2 Oral Medicine & Radiology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental Sciences, SBV University, India.

3 Professor, Medical Biochemistry Division, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Jouf University, Sakaka, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

4 Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jouf University, Sakaka, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


A healthy microbiome is important for human health because it exhibits a variety of functions in the human body wherein the microbiome dysbiosis can lead to a variety of diseases, including cancer. Recent advances in technology and cost reduction of sequencing have made it possible and much easier for researchers to investigate the role of the microbiome in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, modulation of microflora may serve as an effective adjunct to conventional anticancer therapy that is very important to improve the patient’s quality of life. Additionally, microbiome biomarkers can also be used as a diagnostic tool for cancer. So far the association between oral microbial consortia and their interactions with the host in maintaining the human health and the pathogenesis of multiple cancers has gained much popularity in the scientific research community. While the interactions of oral microflora are better established in cancer- like gastric cancer, it is far less understood in others like breast cancer. Therefore, this review briefly outlines the current information on the role of oral microbiota in breast cancer with emphasis on the mechanisms of oral microflora induced carcinogenesis and discusses the emerging role of periodontitis as a risk factor for breast cancer. Clinical relevance; Periodontitis is a very common disease that is characterized by chronic polymicrobial infection and inflammation of gingiva. It might be associated as a risk factor for breast cancer. If this association is validated in large cohort studies, it would serve as a non-invasive biomarker for breast cancer.


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