Newly Synthesized Punicalin and Punicalagin Nano-Prototypes Induce Breast Cancer Cytotoxicity Through ROS-Mediated Apoptosis

Document Type : Research Articles


Department of Hormones, Medical Research and Clinical Studies Institute, National Research Center, Dokki 12622, Giza, Egypt.


Objective: Globally, breast cancer represents serious cause of morbidity and mortality. Our goal is to improve nutraceuticals that have the ability to overlap the side effects of conventional therapies and promising tumoricidal effects by using nanotechnology techniques. The current work was premeditated to explore the apoptotic effects of punicalin (PN) and punicalagin (PNG) nano-prototypes, derived from Punica granatum, on human breast cancerous MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Methods: Firstly, we prepared and characterized of PN, PGN, and 5-flurouracil (FU)-loaded PLGA, PLGA-coated-CS, and PLGA-coated-CS-PEG nano-prototypes. Then, we studied the toxicological and biochemical effects of all nanoformulations. Finally, we measured the genetic and protein expression levels of apoptotic and survival candidates in cancer cells. Results: Our results showed that the newly synthesized nano-prototypes had cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Moreover, they up-regulated Bax and Cas-3 expression levels, as well as down-regulated BCL-2, NF-ĸB and PI3k expression levels compared to control. Nitric oxide (NO) and zinc (Zn) levels were significantly elevated (P < 0.05) after the application of PN and PNG nano-prototypes compared to the control. Conclusion: PN and PNG nano-prototypes of PLGA decorated with CS and PEG enhanced the anti-cancer activity through induction of cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis.


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