Effect of Betulinic acid Extraction from Guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) Leaves Against Human Cholangiocarcinoma Cells

Document Type : Research Articles


1 The Monitoring and Surveillance Center for Zoonotic Disease in Wildlife and Exotic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, Phutthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.

2 Nakhonsawan Campus, Mahidol University, Nakhonsawan, Thailand.

3 Department of Pre-Clinical and Applied Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, Phutthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.


Background: Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpene glycoside extract from guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) leaves, displays a variety of biological activities which exhibit cancer therapeutic properties associated with cancer growth inhibition in various kinds of human cancer cells including brain, breast, colorectal, cervical, lung and prostate gland. However, the effects on human cholangiocarcinoma cells have not previously been reported. Current study, we evaluated the activity of BA against human cholangiocarcinoma (HuCCA) cells. Methods: The cytotoxicity analysis was measured by using MTT assay on HuCCA and BHK-21 cells. Analysis of apoptosis was evaluated by using staining with Hoechst 33342 and quantitative real-time PCR. Results: The BA (50-800 µg/mL) significantly reduced the viability of HuCCA cells in a dose-dependent action with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 92.45 µg/mL at 24 h. It also induced apoptosis signaling pathway, such as nuclear chromatin condensation and fragmentation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that BA increased p53, Bax and caspase-3 expression whilst it decreased Bcl-2 expression in the HuCCA cells in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: BA can inhibit the HuCCA cell viability and induce apoptosis of neoplastic cells. This study indicates that BA has effective treatment for cholangiocarcinoma in vitro. Consequently, BA may be used as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma in the future.


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