Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Risk of Stomach Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Vietnamese Men

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Gastroenterology and Hepatology Center, Bach Mai Hospital, Giai Phong road, Ha Noi, Vietnam.

2 Department of Gastroenterology, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam.

3 Department of Occupational Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

4 National Institute of Public Health, Vientiane, Lao PDR.

5 Department of Surgery, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

6 Faculty of Public Health, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam.

7 National Institute of Occupational and Environmental Health, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

8 Department of Internal Medicine, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

9 Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Viet Nam.

10 Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, International University of Health and Welfare, Japan.


Objective: This study investigated the impacts of waterpipe tobacco (WTP) and cigarette smoking on stomach cancer development in Vietnamese men. Methods: A total of 80 stomach cancer cases and 146 controls were recruited in a hospital-based case-control study. Data on sociodemographic, anthropometric characteristics, tobacco smoking, and the dietary pattern was obtained based on a semi-quantitative food frequency and demographic lifestyle questionnaire; and venous anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies were tested by ELISA. Unconditional logistic regression analysis with adjustments for potential confounding was performed to estimate the association between target exposures and stomach cancer. Results: Compared to the never tobacco smokers, the risk of stomach cancer significantly increased among tobacco smokers (OR 2.95, 95%CI 1.26-6.90, p=0.013). Those who early started tobacco smoking before 26 years old had a high risk of SC (OR 3.04, 95%CI 1.29-7.20, p for trend=0.011). For types of tobacco, It was increased risk in exclusively cigarette smokers (OR 2.85, 95%CI 1.19-6.85, p=0.019) and in WPT smokers (OR 3.09, 95%CI 1.24-7.68, p=0.015). The daily frequency and longer duration of exclusively WPT or cigarette smoking tended to be significantly higher SC risk. Conclusions: The findings suggest that tobacco smoking, particularly water pipe tobacco smoking, dramatically and independently increased the risk of stomach cancer.


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