P16/Ki-67 Dual Staining in Positive Human Papillomavirus DNA Testing for Predictive Diagnosis of Abnormal Cervical Lesions in Northeastern Thai Women

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

2 HPV & EBV and Carcinogenesis Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand.

3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.


Objective: Cervical cancer screening can effectively reduce new cervical cancer cases, including in Thailand. The abnormal results are subsequently referred for colposcopy. To avoid unnecessary colposcopy, an efficient triage is still needed for validation. This study aimed to investigate the overall positivity of cytology-based screening, HPV detection, and p16/Ki-67 dual staining and evaluate different triage strategies for predictive diagnosis of abnormal cervical lesions in northeastern Thailand. Methods: Cervical cells were collected from 191 women who came for cervical screening in the gynecological outpatient department during March 2019-February 2020. Pap smear samples were classified into 6 groups including 17 atypical glandular cells (AGC), 21 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), 7 atypical squamous cells - cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H), 26 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), 19 high-grade SILs (HSILs) and 101 no squamous intraepithelial lesion (noSIL). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for HPV DNA detection. HPV genotyping was determined by reverse line blot hybridization. P16/Ki-67 dual staining was performed by using CINtec PLUS Cytology kit. Biopsies from abnormal screening were collected for surgical pathology classification. Results: High-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection was 2.97%, 29.41%, 38.10%, 57.14%, 46.15% and 84.21% in noSIL, AGC, ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL and HSIL cytology respectively. P16/ Ki-67 in noSIL, AGC, ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL and HSIL was 0.99%, 5.88%, 9.52%, 42.86%, 26.92% and 63.16%, respectively (P-value < 0.001). Among p16/Ki-67 positive cases, 96.15% (25/26) were infected with HPV and 84.62% (22/26) were HR-HPV. The overall positivity of each and co-testing between cytology or HPV DNA testing or p16/Ki-67 dual staining was evaluated. In each cervical lesion, primary HPV DNA testing showed the highest sensitivity, but low specificity. The combined all HPV/HR-HPV with p16/Ki-67 detection increased the specificity of abnormal cervical lesions. Conclusion: P16/Ki-67 dual stain cytology in HPV-positive women performs well for diagnosis of abnormal cervical lesions and should be considered for management of HPV-positive women to avoid unnecessary colposcopy referrals.


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