A Comparison of the Characteristics of Cytokine Storm between Lichen Planus and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Specialist in Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Private Clinic in Iran (Tehran, Isfahan), UAE(Dubai),Oman(Muscat).

2 Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, University of Oklahoma College of Dentistry, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

3 Department of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, Iran.

4 School of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

5 Department of Pathobiology, Section Biotechnology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, and Institute of Biotechnology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


Introduction: Lichen planus (LP) is a relatively common chronic mucocutaneous disease that affects the skin and mucous membranes, including oral mucosa. The etiology of the disease is unknown. Some evidence suggests that the immune system and inflammation may play a role in the formation and progression of lichen planus. Some authorities believe that LP is a precancerous condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines CRP, IL-1, IL-6, and TNF- in patients with oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), as well as to assess the relationship between these cytokine levels and clinical symptoms. Methods: A total of 75 subjects, with 25 in each group of oral lichen planus, healthy control, and oral squamous cell carcinoma, participated in this cross-sectional study. Serum levels of IL-1α, TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP were determined and compared. In comparison to the healthy control group, the lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma groups had higher levels of CRP, IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α. Results: We discovered that the mean mRNA and protein levels of CRP, IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α were significantly higher in the blood and tissue of lichen planus and OSCC patients than in normal controls. Conclusion: Higher levels of CRP, IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α may be linked to OLP and oral carcinogenesis. More research with larger groups is required.


Main Subjects