Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Oncologists toward Chemotherapy Resistance: A Questionnaire Development and Pilot Testing

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Pharmacy, Al Rafidain University College, Baghdad, Iraq.

2 School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia

3 Medical Oncology Department, Oncology Teaching Hospital Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.

4 C4Medical Oncology Department, Alamal National Hospital for Cancer Treatment, Baghdad, Iraq.

5 Consultant surgeon, Abeer Abdulhameed clinic, Al Harthiya, Baghdad, Iraq.


Background: Chemotherapy resistance is caused by a multiplicity of reasons; some of which can be avoided and others that are beyond the scope of current treatment methods. Since chemotherapy is administered under the supervision of health personnel, the role of oncologists cannot be undermined, and yet none is known about their knowledge and perspective. This research is the first-ever study aiming to develop a valid and reliable tool to determine oncologists’ knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward chemotherapy resistance. Methods: Based on information gathered from literature searches, in-depth interviews with oncologists, and discussions with experts, an English-language questionnaire was developed. The questionnaire was tested for validity and reliability. A final version of the questionnaire (63 items) was piloted among 64 practicing oncologists and oncology trainees via convenient sampling. Data analysis was done using SPSS. Results: Correlation coefficients for each of the questionnaire’s domains were more than 0.7 (P<0.001), which suggests that the questionnaire had strong test-retest reliability. The overall internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) for knowledge (0.728), attitude (0.722), and practice (0.716) were greater than 0.7 indicating good internal consistency. Participants demonstrated a low level of knowledge and a positive attitude toward chemotherapy resistance. A statistically significant difference was noted between the knowledge score and education level, years of experience in the medical and oncology field, and experiencing resistance cases. Conclusion: The developed questionnaire was found to be valid and reliable and can be used as an assessment tool for assessing oncologists’ knowledge, attitude, and practice toward chemotherapy resistance in future studies. This study also reported that the oncologists have low knowledge on chemotherapy resistance and a predominantly positive attitude towards fighting chemotherapy resistance. Thus, it is essential for current practices in chemotherapy to be optimized to reduce the risk of chemotherapy resistance.


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