The Association Between the Serum Level of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and the Risk of Breast Cancer among Women in the Gaza Strip

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

2 Department of Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Al- Azhar University- Gaza, Gaza City, Palestine.

3 Department of Laboratory Medicine, Al Azhar University-Gaza, Gaza City, Palestine.

4 Department of Family Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

5 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Islamic University of Gaza, Gaza City, Palestine.


Objective: The purpose of this research was to look at the relationship between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels and the risk for breast cancer (BC) among women in the Gaza Strip. Methods: This case-control study, which included 334 participants (112 women with BC as cases, and 222 women without BC as control), was conducted between January 2021 and August 2022. Research data for the cases were gathered at the Oncology Departments of the Gaza Strip’s two hospitals, “Al- Shifa Hospital and Turkish Palestinian Friendship Hospital,” as well as from the electronic records of the Screening Mammogram Unit at Al- Remal Clinic for controls. The information about the participants was gathered using a standardized questionnaire. The key variables related to BC were identified using multivariate logistic regression. Results: According to multivariate logistic regression, participants’ age was associated with an increase in the risk of BC (OR= 1.03; 95%CI, 1.007-1.060). There was an association between serum concentrations of fasting blood glucose (FBG) (OR= 1.027; 95% CI, 1.013–1.042), IGF-1 (OR= 1.010; 95% CI, 1.006–1.015), and the risk of BC, while there was no link between IGFBP-3 and the risk of BC. In an analysis of the risk according to menopausal status, premenopausal women were associated with an approximate 0.5 time decrease in risk of BC compared to women in post-menopause (OR= 0.428, 95% CI, 0.258, 0.710). Dairy product was also related to a decreased risk of BC. Conclusion: The results suggest that age, lower physical activity, increased levels of FBG, and IGF- 1 increase the BC risk among females in the Gaza Strip. Meanwhile, premenopausal women and dairy products are linked to a reduction in the risk of BC. Furthermore, no link was found between IGFBP-3 and BC risk. Improving early BC detection rates in the Gaza Strip necessitates preventative interventions and screening for BC in the public and healthcare sectors.


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