Punica granatum Seed Essential Oil Suppressed Methadone-Induced Cell Death by Natural Antioxidant Activity

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

2 Department of Medicinal Plant, Kermansha ACECR Institute of Higher Education, KErmanshah, Iran.


Objectives: Methadone is an opioid used in treating chronic and acute pains as well as opioid dependence. It induces death in neural cells. This study investigates Punica granatum oil’s effects as a natural antioxidant on methadone-induced cell death. Materials and methods: The cell death index indicating the apoptosis occurrence is calculated using the TUNEL test. Rhodamine123 evaluated mitochondrial membrane permeability. Griess reaction was used to detect nitric oxide production. Furthermore, IL-1β, IL-6, INFγ, and TNFα inflammatory cytokines were measured using the Rat inflammatory cytokine assay kit, Rat Kit V-Plex, and the caspase-3 activity was calculated through the Caspase-3 Colorimetric Assay Kit. Results: Different treatment processes of Punica granatum oil reduced cell cytotoxicity and cell death index and increased viability and proliferation in methadone-treated PC12 cells. NO production decreased in different treatment processes compared to methadone-induced PC12 cells and decreased IL-1β, IL-6, INFγ, and TNFα inflammatory cytokines. In these treatment processes, mitochondrial membrane potential increased, and caspase-3 activity decreased compared to methadone-induced PC12 cells. Conclusion: Punica granatum essential oil declined methadone-induced cell death in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner through suppressing NO production, IL-1β, IL-6, INF-γ, and TNF-α inflammatory cytokines production, mitochondrial membrane disruption, and caspase-3 activities.


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