Integrative Analysis of the AMPK subunits in Colorectal Adeno Carcinoma

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Science, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Udupi, Karnataka, India.

2 Cancer Research Program, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology (RGCB), Thiruvananthapuram 695014, India.

3 Centre for Professional and Advanced Studies, Department of Medical Biochemistry Gandhi Nagar, Kottayam, Kerala, India.


Background: The 5-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an emerging cancer treatment and therapeutic target. Due to the enzyme’s complexity and dual nature, it is a confounding target in the treatment strategy. The study aimed to conduct an integrative analysis of the seven subunits and twelve isoforms of AMPK, which is not reported so far in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients. Methodology: The web-based tools UALCAN, Timer 2.0, KM Plotter, cBioPortal, COSMIC, and STRING were used to investigate the differential expression of AMPK subunits, protein-level Expression, promoter methylation status, survival analyses, Enrichment analysis, and protein-protein interaction. Results: The mRNA expression of AMPK subunits are upregulated in Colorectal Adeno Carcinoma (COAD), while the protein expression is comparatively reduced in colon tumors. The protein-level expression of α2 and β2 is decreased significantly in COAD patients. The γ3 subunit in colon tumor is hypermethylated. The study also reports that Liver Kinase B1 mutation in 7% of CRC patients, which might be the reason for downregulation of the gene and the protein expression of AMPK subunits in COAD. Conclusion: The Overall analysis of the subunits affirms that AMPK expression is beneficial in cancer.


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