Document Type : Research Articles
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine for Boys, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Al‐Azhar University, Cairo 1675, Egypt.
Background and objectives: Detecting thyroid tumors depends on histologic characteristics. However, distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid abnormalities may be challenging and contentious, particularly in tumors with a follicular appearance. Therefore, immunohistochemistry might be useful and essential. Immunohistochemical biomarkers, such as human trophoblast cell surface antigen (TROP) and Hector Battifora Mesothelial-1 (HBME-1), have helped diagnose thyroid cancers. In addition, mesothelial cells have an antigen called HBME-1 on their membranes, but its role is unclear. Thyroid epithelial neoplasms have lately been studied, and TROP-2 is a helpful marker of these tumors. Recently, researchers have explored HBME-1 upregulation in benign and malignant thyroid tumors. This research aimed to show that the immunohistochemical biomarkers TROP-2 and HBME-1 might be employed to distinguish malignant from benign follicular-derived thyroid lesions. Materials and methods: The research consisted of 50 specimens of various follicular thyroid lesions. From October 2018 to March 2021, blocks of follicular thyroid lesions and clinical information were collected from the Pathology Departments of Al-Azhar University Hospitals. Additionally, the HBME-1 and TROP-2 antigens were stained immunohistochemically. Results: Expression of TROP-2 along with HBME-1 distinguished benign from malignant follicular-derived thyroid lesions with respective sensitivities of 74.2 and 87.1% and specificities of 84.2 and 78.9%. Furthermore, positive HBME-1 expression was significantly less prevalent in benign lesions (15.8%) than in malignant lesions (74.2%) (P-value <0.001). Moreover, positive TROP-2 expression was significantly lower in benign lesions (21.1%) than in malignant lesions (87.1%) (P-value <0.001). The P value of <0.001 indicated an extremely strong positive correlation between HBME-1 and TROP-2 expression across all instances investigated. Conclusion: With high sensitivity and specificity, both HBME-1 and TROP-2 are beneficial in identifying thyroid cancer, particularly papillary carcinoma, and separating malignant follicular-derived thyroid lesions from benign ones.