Document Type : Research Articles
Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia (Icanervilia, Choridah, Rengganis).
Department of Health Sciences, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands (Icanervilia, van Asselt, Vervoort, Postma).
Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit (CEBU), Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands (van Asselt).
Department of Economics, Econometrics & Finance, University of Groningen, Faculty of Economics & Business, Groningen, the Netherlands (Postma).
National Cancer Center, Dharmais Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia (Kardinah).
Background: The lack of early detection in breast cancer management has been identified as the primary factor contributing to the high mortality rate. The introduction of BPJS Kesehatan, Indonesia’s national health insurance, was intended to ensure the provision of adequate health services for breast cancer patients. This study aimed to investigate the current state of health services in Indonesia concerning the early detection of breast cancer, following the implementation of BPJS Kesehatan introduction. Methods: The study was conducted in 2017 in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Subjects were recruited using a purposive sampling technique with maximum variation. The sample comprised breast cancer patients, health care professionals (HCPs), and healthy women from the general population with no history of breast cancer. The subjects’ experiences and knowledge of health services regarding the early detection of breast cancer were investigated through in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize the results from interviews with 25 participants. Result: This study identified several issues that hinder the timely detection of breast cancer. The lack of both screening and diagnostic procedures emerged as a prominent obstacle in breast cancer management. The study identified the following barriers: (1) limited community knowledge about early detection; (2). lack of urgency among patients to seek medical treatment; (3) limited access to health facilities; and (4) inconsistent adherence among health care professionals to guidelines for both screening and diagnostic procedures. Conclusions: This study revealed multiple factors contributing to the delay in breast cancer detection in Indonesia, leading to suboptimal management of the disease. It is crucial for the government to prioritize the improvement of enabling factors across all levels of care for early detection. These factors include initiatives to increase public awareness, improve access to health services, strengthen the referral system, and enhance health facilities.