Survival Outcome of Urinary Diversion in Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients with Hydronephrosis

Document Type : Research Articles


Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Brawijaya, Saiful Anwar Hospital, Malang, Indonesia.


Objective: Urinary diversion is the treatment of choice for cervical cancer patients with urinary tract obstruction. The aim of this study is to determine the survival rate among advanced cervical cancer patients with hydronephrosis who undergo urinary diversion and factors that affect patient survival. Methods: Clinical data of cervical cancer patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage-IIIB or advanced cervical cancer were not surgical candidates admitted to Saiful Anwar Hospital, Malang from May 2016 to August 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. The parameters including age, cancer stage, comorbidity, cancer treatment at diagnosis, hydronephrosis treatment, grade, site, and survival, were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics version 21. The significance level was set up to 0.05. Result: One hundred eighteen patients were included in this study. Most patients were under 60 (84.75%) and presented with stage IIIB (79.66%). Diabetes mellitus type 2 (8.47%), hypertension (7.63%), acute kidney injury (16.10%), and chronic kidney disease (36.78%) were comorbidities discovered in patients. More than half of patients received chemotherapy (54.24%). Ureteral stents were inserted in 85.59% of patients. Patients with moderate hydronephrosis were the most common, accounting for 67.80% of all cases. Patients with bilateral hydronephrosis outnumber those with unilateral by 91.53% to 8.47%. The survival rate did not differ significantly between ureteral stents (median survival was 11.00 months) and percutaneous nephrostomies (median survival was 15.00 months), p=0.749. In univariate analysis, age, cancer stage, and hydronephrosis stage were associated with worse 1-year survival. In multivariate analysis, age, DM type 2, cancer staging and hydronephrosis staging were associated with worse 1-year survival. Conclusion: In advanced cervical cancer patients, urinary diversion techniques such as ureteral stents and percutaneous nephrostomy offer similar survival rates. In addition, age, cancer stage, DM type 2, and hydronephrosis site are strong predictors of a worsening survival rate in patients. 


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